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Mol Cell Biochem. 1976 Feb 16;10(2):97-122.

Antibiotics and compounds affecting tanslation by eukaryotic ribosomes. Specific enhancement of aminoacyl-tRNA binding by methylaxnthines.


The mode and site of action of inhibitors of translation (initiation, elongation and termination of protein synthesis) in eukaryotic systems is reviewed. The isolation and characterization of a factor is described that binds Ac-Phe-tRNA to form a complex made up of binding factors, Ac-Phe-tRNA, and ribosome. The binding of Ac-Phe-tRNA probably occurs at the ribosomal site involved in the binding of the initiator substrate Met-tRNAF. The effect of inhibitors of the intitiation phase of protein synthesis on the nonenzymic Ac-Phe-tRNA binding to ribosomes is investigated. The two sites translocation model for translation in eukaryotic cells is presented and the effects of inhibitors on the various steps of protein synthesis are determined empirically. The site of action of inhibitors of peptide bond formation at the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center is elucidated. The action of inhibitors of translocation is sutdied in model cell-free systems from human cells. In addition, a number of methylxanthines are shown to enhance the elongation phase in polypeptide synthesis by stimulating the enzymic binding of aminoacyl-tRNA. The effect of caffeine, theophylline and its derivatives are shown to be fairly specific and dependent on the ribosome concentration. Aminophylline is shown to have a similar effect but also enhances aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity at low Mg++ concentrations, probably displacing the optimal concentration of Mg++ in the reaction. This second effect of aminophylline appears to be due to the ethylenediamine moiety of aminophylline since it is also observed in the presence of different polyamines but not in the presence of caffeine or theophylline.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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