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J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 1995 Jun;18(3):220-5.

Pharmacokinetics and tissue residues of norfloxacin and its N-desethyl- and oxo-metabolites in healthy pigs.

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Department of Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.


The pharmacokinetic properties of norfloxacin were determined in healthy pigs after single intramuscular (i.m.) and intravenous (i.v.) dosage of 8 mg/kg body weight. After i.m. and i.v. administration, the plasma concentration-time graph was characteristic of a two-compartment open model. After single i.m. administration, norfloxacin was absorbed rapidly, with a tmax of 1.46 +/- 0.06 h. The elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) and the mean residence time of norfloxacin in plasma were 4.99 +/- 0.28 and 6.05 +/- 0.22 h, respectively, after i.m. administration and 3.65 +/- 0.16 and 3.34 +/- 0.16 h, respectively, after i.v. administration. Intramuscular bioavailability was found to be 53.7 +/- 4.4%. Plasma concentrations greater than 0.2 microgram/mL were achieved at 20 min and persisted up to 8 h post-administration. Maximal plasma concentration was 1.11 +/- 0.03 micrograms/mL. Statistically significant differences between the two routes of administration were found for the half-lives of both distribution and elimination phases (t1/2 alpha, t1/2 beta) and apparent volume of distribution (Vd(area)). In pigs, norfloxacin was mainly converted to desethylenenorfloxacin and oxonorfloxacin. Considerable tissue concentrations of norfloxacin, desethylenenorfloxacin, and oxonorfloxacin were found when norfloxacin was administered intramuscularly (8 mg/kg on 4 consecutive days). The concentration of the parent fluoroquinolone in liver and kidney ranged between 0.015 and 0.017 microgram/g on day 12 after the end of dosing.

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