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J Clin Oncol. 1995 Sep;13(9):2272-7.

Escalated MVAC with or without recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor for the initial treatment of advanced malignant urothelial tumors: results of a randomized trial.

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Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston 77030, USA.



Hematopoietic growth factors have been shown to ameliorate the side effects of chemotherapy. Here we assess the ability of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhGM-CSF) to increase the dose-intensity and reduce the side effects of escalated methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) chemotherapy.


A prospective randomized trial to compare escalated MVAC versus escalated MVAC with rhGM-CSF was conducted. All patients were treated at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (UTMDACC) and had a metastatic or unresectable urothelial tumor. Forty-eight patients were randomized (25 to MVAC with rhGM-CSF and 23 to escalated MVAC alone). The clinical characteristics of the study populations were similar (ie, degree of tumor dissemination and performance status).


The dose-intensity in the two arms of the study did not differ significantly. No difference in the frequency of bacteriologically documented infections occurred between the two study arms.


The use of the hematopoietic growth factor rhGM-CSF did not result in an increased dose-intensity of escalated MVAC. The inability to increase the dose-intensity of MVAC further was a result of nonhematologic side effects of the chemotherapy. Escalation of treatment delivered at its median-tolerated dose is unlikely to result in additional therapeutic benefit for patients with common solid tumors. Future development of therapy may require the development of new agents or concepts, rather than modification of existing therapies.

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