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Radiat Environ Biophys. 1995 Jun;34(2):79-83.

Effects of ionizing radiation on cell cycle progression. A review.

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1
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia 19104, USA.

Abstract

Irradiation of normal eukaryotic cells results in delayed progression through the G1, S, and G2 phases of the cell cycle. The G1 arrest is regulated by the p53 tumor suppressor gene product. Irradiation results in increased expression of p53, which in turn induces a 21 kDa protein, WAF1/Cip 1, that inhibits cyclin CDK kinases. S-phase delay is observed after relatively high doses of radiation. This delay has both radiosensitive and radioresistant components, corresponding to inhibition of DNA replicon initiation and DNA chain elongation, respectively. The mechanism for this delay is as yet undefined, but the extent of the delay appears to be under genetic control and is sensitive to the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. A delay in G2 has been demonstrated in virtually all eukaryotic cells examined in response to irradiation. Our studies have focused on the mechanisms responsible for this delay. Cyclin B1 and p34cdc2 are cell cycle control proteins that together form a kinase complex required for passage through G2 and mitosis [22]. Control of radiation-induced G2 delay is likely therefore to involve modulation of cyclin B1/p34cdc2 activity. We have shown in HeLa cells that cyclin B1 expression is decreased in a dose-dependent manner following irradiation. This decrease is controlled at both the level of mRNA and protein accumulation. We have also shown that radiation-sensitive rat embryo fibroblast lines (REF) immortalized with v- or c-myc display a minimal G2 delay when compared to radiation resistant cells transformed with v-myc + H-ras. These REF lines respond to irradiation with a decrease in cyclin B mRNA, which parallels the extent of their respective G2 delays.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

PMID:
7652155
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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