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J Abnorm Child Psychol. 1995 Jun;23(3):335-57.

Infant attachment security and maternal predictors of early behavior problems: a longitudinal study of low-income families.

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Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, USA.


In a longitudinal study of 100 low-income, mother-infant dyads, assessments of infant attachment security and maternal responsivity, involvement, depressive symptomatology, and perceived infant difficulty were used to predict later behavior problems at age 3. Attachment insecurity was related to behavior problems at age 3 when all insecure classifications were combined into one group and when insecurity was maintained at 12 and 18 months. For boys only, maternal depressive symptoms and low maternal involvement were associated with age 3 behavior problems. For girls, perceived difficult temperament at ages 1 and 2 were associated with later problem behavior.

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