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J Biol Chem. 1995 Aug 11;270(32):18935-40.

FK506 binding protein mutational analysis. Defining the surface residue contributions to stability of the calcineurin co-complex.

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Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4211, USA.


The 12- and 13-kDa FK506 binding proteins (FKBP12 and FKBP13) are cis-trans peptidyl-prolyl isomerases that bind the macrolides FK506 (Tacrolimus) and rapamycin (Sirolimus). The FKBP12.FK506 complex is immunosuppressive, acting as an inhibitor of the protein phosphatase calcineurin. We have examined the role of the key surface residues of FKBP12 and FKBP13 in calcineurin interactions by generating substitutions at these residues by site-directed mutagenesis. All mutants are active catalysts of the prolyl isomerase reaction, and bind FK506 or rapamycin with high affinity. Mutations at FKBP12 residues Asp-37, Arg-42, His-87, and Ile-90 decrease calcineurin affinity of the mutant FKBP12.FK506 complex by as much as 2600-fold in the case of I90K. Replacement of three FKBP13 surface residues (Gln-50, Ala-95, and Lys-98) with the corresponding homologous FKBP12 residues (Arg-42, His-87, and Ile-90) generates an FKBP13 variant that is equivalent to FKBP12 in its affinity for FK506, rapamycin, and calcineurin. These results confirm the role of two loop regions of FKBP12 (residues 40-44 and 84-91) as part of the effector face that interacts with calcineurin.

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