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J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 1995 May-Jun;8(3):221-30.

Reference values for normal adult transesophageal echocardiographic measurements.

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Department of Cardiology, Sinai Hospital, Detroit, MI 48235, USA.


Normal transesophageal echocardiographic measurements have not been presented previously relative to the effects of age, sex, and body surface area. This comparison was obtained by measuring cardiac and aortic dimensions in 60 patients (20 to 75 years old; 33 women) with normal transesophageal echocardiograms. We found a variable and usually important relationship between body surface area and 11 of 20 structures measured. A gender effect was not significant after indexing for body surface area for all but one structure. Age correlated with the diameter of the aortic root, descending aorta, superior vena cava, and right pulmonary artery. Similar dimensions were noted for certain paired structures as the two atria, the mitral and tricuspid annuli, and the aortic root and right ventricular outflow tract. Although multiple factors underlie what is normal in a given individual, our reference values serve to facilitate recognition of cardiac and aortic disease.

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