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Development. 1995 Jul;121(7):2019-30.

Role of the proneural gene, atonal, in formation of Drosophila chordotonal organs and photoreceptors.

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Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Francisco 94143-0724, USA.


The Drosophila gene atonal encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein similar to those encoded by the proneural genes of the achaete-scute complex (AS-C). The AS-C are required in the Drosophila PNS for the selection of neural precursors of external sense organs. We have isolated mutants of atonal, which reveal that this gene encodes the proneural gene for chordotonal organs and photoreceptors. In atonal mutants, all observable adult chordotonal organs, and almost all embryonic chordotonal organs fail to form; all adult photoreceptors are missing. For both types of sense organ, this defect is already apparent at the level of precursor formation. Therefore it is a failure in the epidermal-neural decision process i.e. a proneural defect. The failure to form photoreceptors results in atrophy of the atonal mutant imaginal disc, due to apoptosis and lack of stimulation of division. Lack of photoreceptors should also eliminate signalling that arises from differentiating photoreceptors and is required for morphogenetic furrow movement in the wild-type eye disc. Nevertheless, a remnant morphogenetic furrow is still observed in the atonal mutant disc. This presumably reflects the process of furrow initiation, which would not depend on signals from developing photoreceptors.

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