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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Jul 18;92(15):6837-41.

Rescue of defective mitogenic signaling by D-type cyclins.

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Department of Tumor Cell Biology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105, USA.


Three gene products, including Myc and the D- and E-type G1 cyclins, are rate limiting for G1 progression in mammalian fibroblasts. Quiescent mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts engineered to express a mutant colony-stimulating factor (CSF-1) receptor (CSF-1R 809F) fail to synthesize c-myc and cyclin D1 mRNAs upon CSF-1 stimulation and remain arrested in early G1 phase. Ectopic expression of c-myc or either of three D-type cyclin genes, but not cyclin E, resensitized these cells to the mitogenic effects of CSF-1, enabling them to proliferate continuously in liquid culture and to form colonies in agar in response to the growth factor. Rescue by cyclin D1 was enhanced by c-myc but not by cyclin E and was reversed by infecting cyclin D1-reconstituted cells with a retroviral vector encoding catalytically inactive cyclin-dependent kinase 4. Induction of cyclin D1 mRNA by CSF-1 was restored in cells forced to express c-myc, and vice versa, suggesting that expression of the two genes is interdependent. Cells reconstituted with c-myc were prevented from entering S phase when microinjected with a monoclonal antibody to cyclin D1, and conversely, those rescued by cyclin D1 were inhibited from forming CSF-1-dependent colonies when challenged with a dominant-negative c-myc mutant. Cyclin D mutants defective in binding to the retinoblastoma protein were impaired in rescuing mitogenic signaling. Therefore, Myc and D-type cyclins collaborate during the mitogenic response to CSF-1, whereas cyclin E functions in a separate pathway.

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