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Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995 May 24;1271(1):51-7.

Mitochondrial bioactivation of cysteine S-conjugates and 4-thiaalkanoates: implications for mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondrial diseases.

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1
Department of Pharmacology, University of Rochester, New York 14642, USA.

Abstract

The toxicity of most drugs and chemicals is associated with their enzymatic conversion to toxic metabolites. Bioactivation reactions occur in a range of organs and organelles, including mitochondria. The toxicity of haloalkene-derived cysteine S-conjugates and related 4-thiaalkanoates is associated with their mitochondrial bioactivation. Toxic cysteine S-conjugates are formed by the glutathione S-transferase-catalyzed addition of glutathione to haloalkenes to give glutathione S-conjugates, which are hydrolyzed by gamma-glutamyltransferase and dipeptidases. Mitochondrial cysteine conjugate beta-lyase-catalyzed bioactivation of cysteine S-conjugates affords unstable alpha-halothiolates. Haloalkene-derived 4-thiaalkanoates, which are analogs of cysteine S-conjugates that lack an alpha-amino group, undergo bioactivation by the enzymes of fatty acid beta-oxidation to give 3-hydroxy-4-thiaalkanoates that eliminate alpha-halothiolates. alpha-Halothiolates yield alkylating and acylating agents that interact with cellular macromolecules and thereby cause cell damage. Mitochondrial dysfunction is the hallmark of cysteine S-conjugate-induced cytotoxicity: decreased respiration, decreased ATP and total adenine nucleotide concentrations, depletion of the mitochondrial glutathione content, perturbations in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis, and damage to the mitochondrial genome are seen with cysteine S-conjugates. Similar changes are observed with cytotoxic 4-thiaalkanoates, but inhibition of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hypoglycemia are also observed.

PMID:
7599225
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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