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Vet Parasitol. 1995 Mar;57(1-3):213-31.

Live vaccines against hemoparasitic diseases in livestock.

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Division of Parasitology, Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, Israel.


Live vaccines against hemoparasitic diseases in livestock are based on parasites derived from culture (Theileria annulata), from blood of infected animals (Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Anaplasma centrale, (attenuated) Anaplasma marginale and Cowdria ruminantium), and from ticks (Theileria parva). The T. annulata attenuated cultured schizont vaccine is safe for all varieties of cattle. Blood derived vaccines are recommended mainly for young cattle, the age limit varying with the different vaccines and breeds of cattle. In older animals, monitoring of the individual response is needed. Immunization against T. parva requires simultaneous or postinoculation chemotherapy. The potential for accidental transmission of disease agents exists with all blood derived vaccines. Various degrees of resistance to field infection have been reported in animals immunized with live vaccines. Nevertheless, all of them engender a level of protection against natural challenge that justifies their use in field vaccination. Chemotherapy or chemoprophylaxis may prevent establishment of infection with the vaccinal parasites, and thus may interfere with elaboration of immunity. Outbreaks of disease in vaccinated herds, caused by antigenic variants among the tick-transmitted parasites, have been observed mainly in Babesia infections. In recent years, the main efforts towards improvement of live vaccines have been in the direction of replacing blood- and tick-derived parasites by those cultured in vitro under controlled standardized conditions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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