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South Med J. 1995 Jul;88(7):716-20.

Does smokeless tobacco cause hypertension?

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Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, NC 27705, USA.


This article reviews the literature regarding the cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco use. Articles were identified using a MEDLINE search of the English-language literature from 1966 to 1992 and a manual search of bibliographies of identified articles. From 875 articles regarding smokeless tobacco, 12 pertinent articles were identified. Smokeless tobacco caused a clinically significant acute elevation of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, or pulse in 5 of 6 experimental trials. Smokeless tobacco was weakly associated with chronic hypertension in 4 of 6 cross-sectional studies. Health care practitioners should be aware that smokeless tobacco may elevate blood pressure up to 90 minutes after use. Smokeless tobacco use should be considered a potential cause of sodium retention and poor blood pressure control because of its nicotine, sodium, and licorice content.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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