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J Adv Nurs. 1995 Aug;22(2):226-34.

Framing learning through reflection within Carper's fundamental ways of knowing in nursing.

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  • 1Faculty of Health Care and Social Studies, University of Luton, Bedfordshire, England.


Carper's fundamental ways of knowing have been utilized as a framework for the practitioner to consider what he or she has learnt through reflection on experience. The purpose of this paper is to consider, through an interpretation of Carper's writings and through analysing one practitioner's experience shared in a supervision milieu, whether this use of Carper's work can be reasonably justified on a theoretical and practical level.

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