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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1995 Nov;15(6):989-1001.

Hypoglycemia-elicited immediate early gene expression in neurons and glia of the hippocampus: novel patterns of FOS, JUN, and KROX expression following excitotoxic injury.

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Institute of Neuropathology, University of Heidelberg, Germany.


In the hippocampus there is a graded vulnerability of neuronal subpopulations to hypoglycemia-induced degeneration, most likely due to excitotoxic activation of glutamate receptors. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the induction of transcription factors of the immediate early gene (IEG) family after hypoglycemia reflects these different grades of neuronal vulnerability. We studied the expression profile of seven IEG-coded proteins in the rat hippocampus following severe insulin-induced hypoglycemia with 30 min of EEG isoelectricity and various survival periods for up to 42 h after glucose replenishment. Immunocytochemistry was performed on vibratome sections with specific polyclonal antisera directed against c-FOS, FOS B, c-JUN, JUN B, JUN D, KROX-24, and KROX-20. To unequivocally define the type of glial cells showing IEG induction, we investigated coexpression of c-FOS and glial marker proteins (glial fibrillary acid protein [GFAP], OX-42) by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Up to 3 h after glucose replenishment, differential temporospatial induction of IEG-coded transcription factors of the FOS, JUN and KROX families were observed in moderately injured neuronal subpopulations, including the majority of dentate granule cells and CA3 neurons. At later time points, however, a delayed and persistent c-JUN expression was found in severely, but reversibly, injured CA1 neurons and in neurons in the immediate vicinity of irreversibly damaged neurons in the crest of the dentate gyrus. Similar to the results with experimental models of central and peripheral axotomy, selective c-JUN induction in these neurons may represent an initial event in the regeneration process of sublethally injured neurons. In contrast to other models of excitotoxic injury such as ischemia and epilepsy, marked glial c-FOS expression was restricted to astrocytes, as assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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