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J Biol Chem. 1995 Nov 10;270(45):27348-57.

The functional role of the ELR motif in CXC chemokine-mediated angiogenesis.

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Department of Internal Medicine (Division of Pulmonary and Critical Medicine), University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor 48109-0360, USA.


In this study, we demonstrate that the CXC family of chemokines displays disparate angiogenic activity depending upon the presence or absence of the ELR motif. CXC chemokines containing the ELR motif (ELR-CXC chemokines) were found to be potent angiogenic factors, inducing both in vitro endothelial chemotaxis and in vivo corneal neovascularization. In contrast, the CXC chemokines lacking the ELR motif, platelet factor 4, interferon gamma-inducible protein 10, and monokine induced by gamma-interferon, not only failed to induce significant in vitro endothelial cell chemotaxis or in vivo corneal neovascularization but were found to be potent angiostatic factors in the presence of either ELR-CXC chemokines or the unrelated angiogenic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor. Additionally, mutant interleukin-8 proteins lacking the ELR motif demonstrated potent angiostatic effects in the presence of either ELR-CXC chemokines or basic fibroblast growth factor. In contrast, a mutant of monokine induced by gamma-interferon containing the ELR motif was found to induce in vivo angiogenic activity. These findings suggest a functional role of the ELR motif in determining the angiogenic or angiostatic potential of CXC chemokines, supporting the hypothesis that the net biological balance between angiogenic and angiostatic CXC chemokines may play an important role in regulating overall angiogenesis.

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