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Eur J Immunol. 1995 Sep;25(9):2528-32.

Intercellular adhesion molecule-3 is the predominant co-stimulatory ligand for leukocyte function antigen-1 on human blood dendritic cells.

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Haematology/Immunology Research Group, Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand.


Dendritic cells (DC) are potent stimulators of primary T lymphocyte responses to foreign antigen. The initial DC-T lymphocyte interaction involves the binding of the adhesion molecule leukocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18) on the T lymphocyte to an intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) on the DC. Although blood and tonsil DC express ICAM-1 (CD54) and ICAM-2 (CD102) on their surface, anti-ICAM-1 and anti-ICAM-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have little inhibitory activity on the DC-stimulated mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR). We therefore examined the expression of the more recently identified LFA-1 ligand, ICAM-3 (CD50), in comparison to ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on blood DC and sought a functional role for ICAM-3 in DC-mediated T lymphocyte responses. Resting blood DC expressed significantly more ICAM-3 than ICAM-1 or ICAM-2 as assessed by flow cytometry. Treatment of resting DC with interferon-gamma led to increased expression of ICAM-1; however, ICAM-2 and ICAM-3 levels remained relatively constant. Solid-phase recombinant chimeric molecules ICAM-1-, ICAM-2- and ICAM-3-Fc were able to co-stimulate CD4+ T lymphocyte proliferation in conjunction with suboptimal solid-phase CD3 mAb 64.1. However, the anti-ICAM-3 mAb CAL 3.10 inhibited a DC-stimulated MLR to a greater extent than anti-ICAM-1 or anti-ICAM-2 reagents and appeared to act by blocking the DC ICAM-3- T lymphocyte LFA-1 interaction. As ICAM-3 is the predominant LFA-1 ligand on resting blood DC, we postulate that DC may utilize ICAM-3 for initial DC- T lymphocyte interactions, and that ICAM-1, which is up-regulated upon DC activation, and/or ICAM-2, may contribute to DC migration or later phases of the T lymphocyte activation process.

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