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Cell Transplant. 1995 Jul-Aug;4(4):415-36.

Implantable biohybrid artificial organs.

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Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139-4307, USA.


Biohybrid artificial organs encompass all devices which substitute for an organ or tissue function and incorporate both synthetic materials and living cells. This review concerns implantable immunoisolation devices in which the tissue is protected from immune rejection by enclosure within a semipermeable membrane. Two critical areas are discussed in detail: (i) Device design and performance as it relates to maintenance of cell viability and function. Attention is focussed on oxygen supply limitation and how it is affected by tissue density and the development of materials that induce neovascularization at the host tissue-membrane interface; and (ii) Protection from immune rejection. Our current knowledge of the mechanisms that may be operative in immune rejection in the presence of a semipermeable membrane barrier is limited. Nonetheless, recent studies shed light on the role played by membrane properties in preventing immune rejection, and many studies demonstrate substantial progress towards clinically useful implantable immunoisolation devices.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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