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Ann Thorac Surg. 1995 Oct;60(4):1076-80.

Effects of high-dose aprotinin on renal function in aortocoronary bypass grafting.

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1
Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Homburg University Hospital, Homburg/Saar, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

To reduce blood consumption in cardiac surgery, aprotinin has been widely used for years. Because aprotinin is metabolized in the kidney, damage of the renal system has been discussed.

METHODS:

To study these possibly unfavorable effects of aprotinin, a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 20 patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass operations was performed. A placebo group P was compared with group A, in which patients received high-dose aprotinin according to the "Hammersmith" regimen. Renal function was assessed for 5 postoperative days using sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and quantitative protein analysis of the urine.

RESULTS:

During and after the operation, temporary renal dysfunction was found in all patients, with a substantial increase of all investigated indices. The alpha 1-microglobulin level in the urine was significantly increased in the aprotinin group for 5 days in comparison with the placebo group, with a maximum on the third postoperative day (64.8 +/- 13.7 versus 21.0 +/- 6.5 mg/L; p < 0.05). Similarly, after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the bands of proteins filtrated in the renal tubular system were almost tripled in the aprotinin group 5 days postoperatively (5.0 +/- 0.8 versus 2.1 +/- 0.2; p < 0.05). Although urine production was significantly increased in group A (4789 +/- 580 versus 3653 +/- 492 mL/24 h postoperatively; p < 0.05), no relevant changes in serum or urine creatinine levels could be observed in either group.

CONCLUSIONS:

Patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass operations demonstrate a temporary renal dysfunction. Aprotinin impairs renal function in addition by overloading the tubular reabsorption mechanisms. Patients with normal renal function preoperatively--as were included in this study--are able to compensate for both the perioperative renal dysfunction caused by the extracorporeal circulation and the additional tubular damage due to aprotinin.

PMID:
7574952
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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