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Int J Dev Neurosci. 1995 Jun-Jul;13(3-4):213-40.

Cytokines regulate the cellular phenotype of developing neural lineage species.

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Department of Neurology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.


The patterns and mechanisms of action of inductive signals that orchestrate neural lineage commitment and differentiation in the mammalian brain are incompletely understood. To examine these developmental issues, we have utilized several culture systems including conditionally immortalized cell lines, subventricular zone progenitor cells and primary neuronal cultures. A neural stem and progenitor cell line (MK31) was established from murine embryonic hippocampus by retroviral transduction of temperature-sensitive alleles of the simian virus 40 large tumor antigen. At the non-permissive temperature for antigen expression (39 degrees C) in serum-free media, the neural stem cells give rise to a series of increasingly mature neuronal progenitor and differentiated cellular forms under the influence of a subset of hematolymphopoietic cytokines (interleukins 5, 7, 9 and 11), when individually co-applied with transforming growth factor alpha, after pretreatment with basic fibroblast growth factor. These cellular forms elaborated a series of progressively more mature neurofilament proteins, a sequential pattern of ligand-gated channels, and inward currents and generation of action potentials with mature physiological properties. Because the factors regulating the development of central nervous system astrocytes have been so difficult to define, we have chosen to focus, in this manuscript, on the elaboration of this cell type. At 39 degrees C, application of a subfamily of bone morphogenetic proteins of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily of growth factors sanctioned the selective expression of astrocytic progenitor cells and mature astrocytes, as defined by sequential elaboration of the Yb subunit of glutathione-S-transferase and glial fibrillary acidic protein. These lineage-specific cytokine inductive relationships were verified using subventricular zone neural progenitor cells generated by the application of epidermal growth factor, alone or in combination with basic fibroblast growth factor, to dissociated cellular cultures derived from early embryonic murine brain, a normal non-transformed developmental population. Finally, application of a different series of cytokines from five distinct factor classes (basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor-AA, insulin-like growth factor 1, neurotrophin 3 and representative gp130 receptor subunit-related ligands) caused the elaboration of oligodendroglial progenitor species and post-mitotic oligodendrocytes, defined by progressive morphological maturation and the expression of increasingly advanced oligodendroglial and oligodendrocyte lineage markers. In addition, seven different gp130-associated neuropoietic (ciliary neurotrophic factor, leukemia inhibitory factor, oncostatin-M) and hematopoietic (interleukins 6, 11, 12, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) cytokines exhibited differential trophic effects on oligodendroglial lineage maturation and factor class interactions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

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