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Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 1995;137(7):312-21.

[Sedation and anesthesia in dogs and cats with cardiovascular diseases. I. Anesthesia plan considering risk assessment, hemodynamic effects of drugs and monitoring].

[Article in German]

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College of Veterinary Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.


The purpose of this study was to review the effects of sedatives and anesthetics in 137 dogs and 13 cats with congenital or acquired heart disease which were referred for diagnostic, therapeutic, and surgical interventions: correction of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA-ligation, 28%), cardiac catheterization with angiogram and angioplasty (22%), pacemaker implantation (18%), exploratory lateral thoracotomy (8.7%), correction of right aortic arch (ring anomaly, 3.3%), correction of subvalvular aortic stenosis (2.7%), correction of PDA with coil in patients with mitral regurgitation and congestive heart failure (2%), pericardectomy and removal of heart-base tumors (2%), palliative surgery for ventricular septal defect (VSD, 0.7%), and sick patients with deleterious cardiac arrhythmias (0.7%). The anesthetic plan considered the risks of anesthesia based upon preoperative patient assessment, classification scheme for functional phases of heart failure, and anesthetic drug effects of the cardiovascular system. The effects of sedatives and anesthetic drugs on determinants of cardiac output are described. The most commonly used drugs for premedication, induction, and maintenance of anesthesia were midazolam-oxymorphone (20%), thiopental or etomidate (30%), and isoflurane (64%). Prompt therapy was given to control arrhythmias and provide organ perfusion, pain relief, muscle relaxation and renal diuresis, using lidocaine, dopamine, fentanyl, atracurium, and furosemide in 17.3% 14.7%, 12%, 10%, and 8.7% of animals, respectively. Methods of routine and advanced patient monitoring are described.

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