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J Vasc Surg. 1995 Oct;22(4):425-30; discussion 430-3.

Ultrasound-guided compression of iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysm failure, recurrence, and long-term results.

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1
Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester 01655, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Iatrogenic femoral pseudoaneurysms (IFP) have traditionally been treated surgically. Recently, this common problem has been successfully treated without operation by use of ultrasound-guided compression (UGC) to induce thrombosis of the false aneurysm cavity, but the risk factors for failure and the long-term outcome have not been defined.

METHODS:

All patients referred to the vascular laboratory from June 1992 to November 1994 whose femoral pseudoaneurysms were treated by UGC were included in the study. Data were collected prospectively during the last 18 months of the study. Data regarding the location and morphologic characteristics of the pseudoaneurysms and anticoagulation status were documented. Patients who had successful UGC underwent follow-up duplex scanning and ankle-brachial arterial pressure evaluations.

RESULTS:

Fifty-seven patients with IFP were treated with UGC over a 30-month period; the last 34 were evaluated prospectively. UGC was successful at obliterating the false aneurysm cavity with the initial attempt in 47 (83%). Thrombosis of seven additional pseudoaneurysms was achieved on subsequent UGC attempts for an overall success rate of 95%. Recurrent false aneurysms were noted in two patients 2 and 10 days after initially successful UGC. Both were treated successfully with repeat UGC. Multivariate analysis of 14 variables revealed heparin anticoagulation (chi-square 9.025, p = 0.001) as the only significant risk factor for failure of UGC. There were no episodes of arterial thrombosis, embolization, or femoral nerve injury associated with UGC. Temporary occlusion of femoral artery during UGC and compression intervals of 20 minutes were well tolerated. Long-term follow-up from 30 to 400 days after UGC was available in 36 patients. There was no late recurrence or significant change in ankle-brachial pressures (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

UGC is a safe and effective treatment for most catheter-induced femoral pseudoaneurysms with a low complication rate and excellent long-term results at a cost substantially lower than operative treatment. Because the natural history of IFP is unpredictable, UGC appears to be the preferred treatment for all IFPs persisting after cessation of heparin anticoagulation.

PMID:
7563403
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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