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J Med. 1995;26(1-2):1-16.

Execution by crucifixion. History, methods and cause of death.

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  • 1Louisiana State University School of Medicine, Shreveport 71103, USA.


Crucifixion, as a method of execution was practiced in many cultures before it was outlawed in the Roman Empire by Constantine in 341 C.E., but it has been used sporadically since then. Recent archeological excavations of the remains of a crucified victim have stimulated studies of the methods used. The theories regarding the cause of death as reported in the medical literature are discussed.

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