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Translation of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA by internal ribosomal entry.

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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Health Sciences Center at Brooklyn 11203-2098, USA.


Picornavirus 5' NCRs contain IRES elements that have been divided into two groups, exemplified by PV (type 1) and EMCV (type 2). These elements are functionally related and have an intriguing level of structural and sequence similarity. Some conserved RNA sequences and/or structures may correspond to cis-acting elements involved in IRES function, so that there may also be similarities in the mechanism by which the two types or IRES promote initiation. The function of both types of IRES element appears to depend on a cellular 57 kDa polypeptide, which has been identified as the predominantly nuclear hnRNP protein PTB. However, a specific function for p57/PTB in translation has not yet been established. These two groups can be differentiated on the basis of their requirements for trans-acting factors. The EMCV IRES functions efficiently in a broader range of eukaryotic cell types than type 1 IRES elements, probably because the latter require additional factor(s). A second distinction between these IRES element is that initiation occurs directly at the 3' border of type 2 IRES elements, whereas a nonessential spacer of between 30 nt and 154 nt separates type 1 IRES elements from the downstream initiation codon.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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