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Pediatr Dermatol. 1995 Jun;12(2):116-29.

CHILD syndrome: analysis of abnormal keratinization and ultrastructure.

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Department of Dermatology and Syphilology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.


A new patient with CHILD syndrome (congenital hemidysplasia, ichthyosiform erythroderma, and limb defects), the thirtieth in the literature, was observed for over three years. Initially, the right-sided lesion spared the breast area. At 10 months of age the trunk lesion extended to cover the entire area of the right chest. At age 20 months the patient developed linear, bandlike, keratotic, brown-black lesions on her left thigh that subsided within six weeks, leaving a slight hyperpigmentation. This patient was studied by routine histologic methods as well as with markers of keratinization and electron microscopy. In hematoxylin and eosinstained sections, parakeratosis and orthokeratosis alternated. In some parakeratotic areas, large granular cells, and in others, ghost granular cells, were present. The latter showed basophilic cytoplasm, and palestaining or vacuolated nucleus and were seen either above the normal granular layer or without it. Although regional variations existed, basal cell-type keratins as recognized by AE1 continued to be expressed in suprabasal layers. Filaggrin- and involucrin-positive layers were expanded, particularly the latter, down to the lower prickle cell layer. Ultrastructurally, numerous lamellar or membranous structures were found in upper layers of the epidermis, both intracellulary and intercellularly. Normal cementsomes coexisted with these abnormal lamellar structures, and it was thought that the latter represent modified cementsomes because the discharge of those from the cell periphery was often detected.

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