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Drug Alcohol Depend. 1994 Oct;36(2):101-7.

Behavior in cocaine-exposed infants and children: association versus causality.

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Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10467.


The effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on infant and child development and behavior are uncertain. This ambiguity has been enhanced by the early nature of human research and suboptimal study designs. Methodological difficulty in this research, particularly in the consideration of confounding effects, has made it difficult to ascribe causal relationships. Future research must consider more precise measures of confounding.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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