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Eur J Biochem. 1994 Jun 15;222(3):743-51.

Two human antibodies reacting with different epitopes on integrin beta 3 of platelets and endothelial cells.

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1
URA 1464 CNRS, Hôpital Cardiologique, Pessac, France.

Abstract

Glanzmann's thrombasthenia is an inherited bleeding disorder that results from a deficit of glycoprotein (GP) IIb-IIIa complexes in platelets. Patient (EBV) is an adult male with GP IIb-IIIa levels < 5% of normal values and a history of blood transfusions. Western-blot analysis revealed a strong IgG antibody to GP IIIa in his plasma. The determinants were localized to the minimum-sized fragment of GP IIIa (50 kDa) retained on chymotrypsin-treated platelets and were lost on reduction of disulphides. A female patient (AF), previously described by us [Jallu, V., Pico, M., Chevaleyre, J., Vezon, G., Kunicki, T.J. & Nurden, A.T. (1992) Hum. Antibod. Hybridomas 3, 93-106] developed her anti-GP-IIIa antibody during pregnancy. This antibody was poorly reactive with the 50-kDa proteolytic fragment, yet bound to 115-kDa and 60-kDa hydrolytic products of GP IIIa. Antibodies from both patients recognized the GP-IIIa-like protein of endothelial cells, thus confirming that they were directed against the integrin beta 3-subunit. The (EBV) antibody reacted strongly with GP IIb-IIIa in an antigen capture assay performed with each of a panel of four murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing different epitopes on GP IIb-IIIa. In contrast, that from (AF) was specifically inhibited by AP-3, a murine mAb whose epitope is thought to be localized between amino acids 324-422 of GP IIIa. The residual GP IIb and GP IIIa contents of platelets from each patient were assessed in Western blotting using chemiluminescence detection. SZ-22, a murine mAb to the GP IIb heavy chain (140 kDa), located small amounts of a 130-kDa protein in (EBV) platelets. The anti-GP IIIa mAbs XII F9, P 37 and P 97 revealed trace amounts of protein with a relative mobility identical to that of GP IIIa in both (AF) and (EBV) platelets. This residual GP IIIa represented less than 0.5% of the amount in normal platelets. When, for each patient, plasma was tested in Western blotting against their own platelets, autoantibody activity to the residual GP IIIa was detected in both cases. Thus, patients (AF) and (EBV) have developed anti-GP-IIIa antibodies with restricted and distinct epitopes but recognizing self antigens.

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