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Anal Biochem. 1995 Sep 20;230(2):229-38.

Nonselective and efficient fluorescent labeling of glycans using 2-amino benzamide and anthranilic acid.

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Oxford GlycoSystems Limited, Abingdon, Oxon, United Kingdom.


Reaction conditions for conjugation of two fluorescent ortho-substituted aniline derivatives, 2-amino benzamide (2-AB) and 2-anthranilic acid (2-AA), to N- and O-glycans have been investigated. Conjugation conditions for attaching 2-AB and 2-AA to core-fucosylated and non-fucosylated glycans were developed using complex N-glycans radiolabeled at the nonreducing terminus with [3H]C6-galactose. Optimal conditions for each of the following reaction parameters were experimentally defined: [glycans], [2-AB] or [2-AA], solvent and acid composition, temperature and time of Schiff's base formation, nature of reductant, and temperature and time of reduction. Using the optimized reaction conditions it has been shown with several standard glycans and glycoprotein-derived glycan libraries that (i) molar labeling efficiencies are high and essentially independent of the amount of glycans; (ii) negligible (< 2 mol%) desialylation occurs during conjugation; (iii) glycan labeling is nonselective, i.e., independent of glycan structure; and (iv) insignificant fluorescent or chemical "blank" is recovered during the glycan-labeling and purification protocol. Labeling glycan pools with 2-AB or 2-AA therefore allows representative glycan profiles to be obtained and also allows relative molar quantitation of individual glycans in a pool. The 2-AB label is compatible with several chromatographic means for separation of carbohydrates including Bio Gel P4 gel permeation, high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with fluorescence detection, and a variety of HPLC procedures, as well as with mass spectrometric methods including matrix-assisted laser desorption-mass spectrometry and electrospray-mass spectrometry. The 2-AA label is particularly well-suited for electrophoretic separations by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These fluorophores show high intrinsic sensitivity and thus facilitate very sensitive analysis of protein glycosylation.

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