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Mol Gen Genet. 1995 Nov 27;249(3):257-64.

Adaptation to high-salt stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is regulated by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphoprotein phosphatase (calcineurin) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

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Department of Fermentation Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Japan.


Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent phosphoprotein phosphatase (calcineurin, PP2B) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is implicated in adaptation to high-salt conditions. Calcineurin mediates high salt-induced expression of the ENA1/PMR2 gene encoding the P-type ATPase, which is suggested to be involved in Na+ efflux. We identified the PDE1 gene encoding the low-affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase as a multicopy suppressor of the Li(+)- and Na(+)-sensitive calcineurin null mutant, suggesting that cAMP is a negative regulator of adaptation to high-salt stress. Genetic analysis indicated that calcineurin and cAMP act antagonistically in a common pathway for adaptation. The bcy1 disruption, which leads to constitutive cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity inhibited high NaCl-induced expression of the ENA1/PMR2 gene, caused an elevation of the intracellular Na+ level and a growth defect in high-NaCl medium, all of which were analogous to the defects of a calcineurin mutant. A reduced cAMP level resulting from multiple copies of the PDE1 gene caused increased expression of the ENA1/PMR2 gene in response to high NaCl. We propose a model for the regulation of cation homeostasis, in which calcineurin antagonizes PKA to activate transcription of the ENA1/PMR2 gene in response to high-salt conditions.

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