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J Trauma. 1995 Dec;39(6):1091-7; discussion 1097-9.

Effect of hyperventilation, mannitol, and ventriculostomy drainage on cerebral blood flow after head injury.

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Department of Surgery, Albany Medical College, New York, USA.


Therapies to lower intracranial pressure (ICP) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) include hyperventilation (HV), intravenous mannitol (IM), and cerebrospinal fluid drainage from a ventriculostomy (DV). To determine the effects of these therapies on cerebral blood flow (CBF), fiberoptic oximetry was used to measure jugular venous O2 saturation (SjvO2) as an index of the CBF to cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2) ratio after IM (25 g IV for more than 5 min), DV (3 min), or HV (increase respiratory rate by 4) therapy for elevated ICP. Assuming CMRO2 is constant, changes in SjvO2 reflect changes in CBF. Continuous measurements of SjvO2, ICP, blood pressure, arterial O2 saturation, and end-tidal CO2 were obtained in 22 patients with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 5.3 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SD) in the first 5 days after TBI. Therapy was initiated a total of 196 times when ICP was > 15 mm Hg for > 5 minutes, and measurements made at 20 minutes after treatment were compared with those made just before. After DV, ICP fell in 90% of the observations by 8.6 +/- 0.7 mm Hg (mean +/- SEM, n = 119); after IM, ICP fell in 90% of the observations by 7.4 +/- 0.7 mm Hg (n = 43); and after HV, ICP fell in 88% of the observations by 6.3 +/- 1.2 mm Hg (n = 14). In patients where ICP fell, SjvO2 increased by 2.49 +/- 0.7% saturation (from 68.0 +/- 1.3%) with IM, but only by 0.39 +/- 0.4% saturation (from 67.2 +/- 0.9%) with DV.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

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