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J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 1995 Oct;12(10):2329-38.

Direct measurement of human-cone-photoreceptor alignment.

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  • 1Schepens Eye Research Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.


We have developed an imaging reflectometer to measure cone-photoreceptor alignment. One makes measurements by bleaching the cone photopigment and imaging the distribution of light returning from the retina, which is illuminated from a small source imaged in the plane of the eye's pupil. If the source is near the optimal entry pupil position as determined psychophysically, the distribution of light returning from the retina is peaked, and the magnitude of the peak depends on the location of the source in the pupil of the eye. If the source is far from the optimal entry pupil position, then there is no measurable peak. The location of the peak varies across individuals and coincides with the reported location of best visibility of the measuring light and with previous psychophysical and reflectometric measurements of the Stiles-Crawford peak. The source of this directionality must arise either from the photoreceptors or from behind the photoreceptors because the peak is not present if measurements are made when the cone photopigments have high optical density.

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