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Curr Opin Immunol. 1995 Aug;7(4):539-52.

Immunogenetics in the analysis of resistance to intracellular pathogens.

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Michael Reese Hospital and Medical Center, Chicago, USA.


Recent studies have identified genes involved in resistance to intracellular pathogens. Such genes include the murine MHC class I gene, Ld (toxoplasmosis), HLA-BW53, HLA DRB1* 1302-DQ B10s01 and TNF2 (malaria), murine Nramp (toxoplasmosis, leishmaniasis and tuberculosis), gene(s) modulating the T-helper type 1 and type 2 dichotomy (leishmaniasis, leprosy and HIV infection) and the natural killer cell complex (cytomegalovirus infection). There also have been other advances in immunogenetics that have led to a better understanding of resistance to intracellular pathogens. These include effector mechanisms of immune response genes and factors modulating genetic susceptibility. Identification of genes that determine resistance/susceptibility (and their effector mechanisms) has impacted on vaccine development. Immunogenetics has been important in characterizing roles of TCR genes, superantigens, and host genes that play a role in molecular mimicry in disease pathogenesis. In addition, recent work with gene knockout, recombinant inbred or congenic, mutant, consomic, and transgenic mice, positional cloning, mouse/human gene homologies to identify candidate human resistance genes, and the rapid expansion of the gene transcription maps of the human genome, have been important in analysis of resistance to intracellular pathogens.

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