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Am J Vet Res. 1995 Sep;56(9):1219-24.

Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in clinically normal dogs and mice and drug pharmacodynamics in neutropenic mice with Escherichia coli and staphylococcal infections.

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Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison 53706, USA.


Pharmacodynamic variables of enrofloxacin were investigated in a neutropenic mouse Escherichia coli and staphylococcal thigh infection model. Enrofloxacin pharmacokinetics in clinically normal mice and dogs were compared to confirm that doses evaluated in the mouse model would include enrofloxacin doses appropriate for use in dogs. Mice were made neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide and injected in the thigh muscle with approximately 10(6) colony-forming units of E coli (n = 2) or a staphylococcal (n = 2) clinical isolate. Enrofloxacin dosages tested ranged from 0.78 to 50 mg/kg of body weight and 6.25 to 200 mg/kg in the E coli and staphylococcal infection trials, respectively. In each 24-hour dosage trial, enrofloxacin was administered SC as a single dose or in divided doses given every 3, 6, or 12 hours. Comparison of log10 colony-forming units per thigh muscle in untreated control mice and mice treated with enrofloxacin was used as a measure of efficacy. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine that the enrofloxacin total dose, but not the dose frequency, was significant in determining drug efficacy. Pharmacokinetic values analyzed by use of multivariant stepwise linear regression analysis indicated that the area under the concentration-time curve, but not time above minimum inhibitory concentration, was significant in predicting efficacy of enrofloxacin treatment. We conclude that enrofloxacin killing of E coli and staphylococci is concentration dependent and not time dependent.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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