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Ther Drug Monit. 1995 Aug;17(4):319-26.

Vancomycin pharmacokinetics and dosing in premature neonates.

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1
Department of Pharmacy, British Columbia's Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.

Abstract

We prospectively studied the pharmacokinetic parameters of vancomycin in premature neonates given vancomycin according to a dosage protocol developed in our neonatal unit. Study infants were administered vancomycin according to four postconceptional age (PCA) groups: (0) 18 mg/kg every 36 h for PCA < 27 weeks; (I) 16 mg/kg every 24 h for PCA 27-30 weeks; (II) 18 mg/kg every 18 h for PCA 31-36 weeks; and (III) 15 mg/kg every 12 h for PCA > or = 37 weeks. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated from peak and trough serum vancomycin concentrations at steady state. Results in 44 infants (PCA, 27-44 weeks) showed that our dosage regimen achieved target peak serum vancomycin concentrations in 64% of neonates in Groups I-III, although it tended to undershoot the target trough concentrations. Volume of distribution (Vd), normalized for body weight, remained constant throughout the PCA range, with a mean value of 0.56 L/kg, whereas absolute clearance (r = 0.81) and normalized clearance (r = 0.48) increased with PCA (p < 0.005). The increase in clearance with PCA is associated with a greater elimination rate constant and shorter half-life. Vancomycin therapy can be initiated in a standard fashion according to our protocol or by individualizing the dosage regimen based on a Vd of 0.56 L/kg and clearance estimated from the infant's body weight and PCA groups.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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