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Surg Endosc. 1995 Jul;9(7):797-801.

Laparoscopy without pneumoperitoneum. Effects of abdominal wall retraction versus carbon dioxide insufflation on hemodynamics and gas exchange in pigs.

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Department of Anesthesiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Laparoscopic surgery with CO2 insufflation is associated with adverse effects on hemodynamics and gas exchange. The abdominal wall retractor (AWR) is an alternative for pneumoperitoneum. Hemodynamics and gas exchange during the use of an AWR were compared to those of CO2 pneumoperitoneum. In eight pigs subjected to 1 h of CO2 pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall retraction, hemodynamics, gas exchange, and oxygen transport were studied in a randomized cross-over study design. The only change observed during abdominal wall retraction was mild respiratory alkalosis. In contrast, during CO2 pneumoperitoneum mean arterial blood pressure increased 13%, central filling pressures doubled, and a small increase in cardiac output was observed. Peak airway pressures increased 50%, end-tidal CO2 increased 20%, and respiratory acidosis was induced (arterial pH from 7.46 +/- 0.07 to 7.31 +/- 0.06 and pCO2 from 33 +/- 3 mmHg to 53 +/- 4 mmHg). Arterial PO2 decreased but mixed venous oxygen saturation and oxygen consumption were unaffected. In contrast with CO2 pneumoperitoneum, laparoscopy using abdominal wall retraction was not associated with adverse effects on hemodynamics or gas exchange.

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