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Br J Psychiatry. 1981 Oct;139:293-6.

Physical symptoms of depression.


The incidence of physical symptoms in depression was studied in 51 drug-free patients and in an age and sex-matched control group. Mean symptom intensity and number of symptoms were significantly higher in the patient than in the control group. The subjects' personality structure and relationships between their symptoms and degrees of depression and anxiety were examined using the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Of the variables studied, only the N score of the EPI was shown to influence the symptoms significantly. The effect of such non-specific factors as age, gender, use of alcohol, coffee, tea, and cigarettes was also evaluated and found to be minimal.

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