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Arch Surg. 1981 Sep;116(9):1139-40.

Involvement of the nipple and areola by carcinoma of the breast.


Forty-five surgical mastectomy specimens obtained during resection of carcinoma of the breast were evaluated for involvement of the nipple and/or areola by cancer. Such involvement was found in 11 specimens (25%). Tumor size, relative distance of the tumor from the nipple, and tumor histologic type were investigated and compared with nipple-areolar involvement. The high incidence of nipple involvement found here indicates a definite risk of recurrence for surgical procedures that preserve the nipple.

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