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J Neurosci. 1982 Dec;2(12):1786-92.

Intracellular identification of central noradrenergic and serotonergic neurons by a new double labeling procedure.


The purpose of this study was to ascertain the identity of presumed noradrenergic or serotonergic neurons recorded by single cell techniques in the mammalian brain. A double labeling method was developed in which intracellular injections of a red fluorescing dye (ethidium bromide) could be co-localized with the formaldehyde-induced green fluorescence of norepinephrine or yellow fluorescence of serotonin. By this method, neurons of the rat locus coeruleus that display a characteristic activation-inhibition response to noxious stimuli were confirmed to be noradrenergic; the slow, rhythmically firing neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus were confirmed to be serotonergic.

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