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J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1982 Jun;69:7-36.

Control of pattern formation in urodele limb ontogeny: a review and a hypothesis.


From a review of the literature, the hypothesis is advanced that the forelimb region of the urodele embryo acquires its transverse axial polarity and pattern by the action of posterior and dorsal polarizing regions. The anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes are determined simultaneously and their determination is a prerequisite for proximal-distal outgrowth. Outgrowth of the limb bud is accompanied by the generation, between proximal and distal boundaries, of a set of positional values specifying proximal-distal axial polarity and pattern. The proximal boundary is the initial positional value carried by the cells of the limb area. The distal boundary is imposed upon the outermost layer of limb disc cells by the overlying ectoderm.

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