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Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1982;22(1):27-32.

Influence of sulfonylureas on the secretion, disposal and effect of insulin.

Abstract

The influence of sulfonylurea on the secretion, disposal and effect of insulin was studied in 9 Type 2 diabetics during 3 one-month courses of treatment with a) chlorpropamide (t1/2 greater than 24 h) once daily, b) glipizide (t1/2 = 2-4 h) once daily, and c) glipizide in divided doses. Food intake by each patient was identical during each period. Blood concentrations of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) and C-peptide (radioimmunoassays), and of glucose (enzymatic assay), chlorpropamide (gas chromatography) and glipizide (high-pressure liquid chromatography) were determined before and after breakfast and lunch on the 4th day of each examination period. All comparisons were intraindividual. Despite the lunch-time dose of glipizide given during the divided dose treatment, once-daily administration of this drug led to higher drug concentrations not only after breakfast but also for the first few hours after lunch. Divided dosage, on the other hand, led to higher concentrations later. In contrast to once-daily dosage, continuous exposure to glipizide was found in most patients. Chlorpropamide gave the most continuous sulfonylurea exposure. The blood glucose levels were inversely related to the concurrent sulfonylurea concentrations; glucose levels after breakfast and lunch were lowest during once-daily glipizide, whereas the fasting level was lowest during chlorpropamide treatment. The IRI response to breakfast was 60%-70% higher during once-daily glipizide than during the other two treatments but the C-peptide responses to breakfast were almost identical. Thus, the greater after-breakfast availability of peripheral insulin appeared to be due to an effect of glipizide on the extrapancreatic disposal of the hormone.

PMID:
7047169
DOI:
10.1007/bf00606421
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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