Send to

Choose Destination
J Comp Neurol. 1981 Dec 20;203(4):649-70.

Laminar organization of the afferent and efferent systems of the torus semicircularis of gymnotiform fish: morphological substrates for parallel processing in the electrosensory system.


The torus semicircularis of Gymnotiform fish is an enlarged laminated midbrain structure which receives lemniscal input from electrosensory, mechanoreceptive lateral line, and auditory systems. The electrosensory input in confined to the dorsal torus, while the auditory and mechanoreceptive systems project to the ventral torus. Anterograde and retrograde techniques were used were used to determine the connections of the dorsal torus in Apteronotus and Eigenmannia. The dorsal torus can be divided into nine major laminae, each of which has distinct afferent and efferent connections. The dorsal torus receives five afferent inputs: (1) A contralateral topographic input from the posterior lateral line lobe (PLLL) projects to laminae III, V, VI, VII, VIIIB, and VIIID. (2) Eurydendroid cells of the caudal lobe of the cerebellum project contralaterally to lamina VIIIB. (3) A portion of the descending nucleus of V projects to laminae VIIIA, VIIIC, and IX. (4) Lamina I is a cap of fine myelinated fibers which may originate in the torus longitudinalis. They project to laminae II and III. (5) The ipsilateral optic tectum projects to the dorsal torus. The dorsal torus projects to six major targets: (1) Laminae VII, VIII, and IX project bilaterally to a lateral region of the diencephalon above n. preglomerulosus, herein named n. electrosensorius. An area below the dorsal thalamus receives a smaller ipsilateral projection. (2) Laminae II, V, VIvn, VII, VIII, and IX project topographically to the deeper laminae of the ipsilateral optic tectum. This projection is in spatial register with the visual map in the superficial layers of the tectum. (3) Lamina VIIID projects ipsilaterally to the lateral reticular formation. (4) All laminae other than I, VI, and VIIIB project topographically to ahe ipsilateral n. praeeminentialis, which provides a powerful descending projection to the PLLL. (5) Lamina IX projects to a dorsal pretectal area. (6) The ipsilateral inferior olive receives a projection from the dorsal torus.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center