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Cleft Palate J. 1981 Jul;18(3):193-203.

Articulatory additions to the classical description of the speech of persons with cleft palate.


Three types of compensatory articulation used by speakers with cleft palate and velopharyngeal inadequacy are described: the pharyngeal stop, the mid-dorsum palatal stop, and the posterior nasal fricative. These articulatory characteristics have not been previously reported in the literature. Each is defined radiographically to depict deviant place of production. Each is also described in terms of perceptually distinct speech characteristics. Production features of these articulatory compensations are contrasted and compared with those of the glottal stop and pharyngeal fricative. The use of compensatory articulation as replacements for target phonemes is distinguished from their occurrence as aberrant co-articulations with target phonemes. Additionally, phonetic symbols for use in narrow phonetic transcription are presented, and implications for speech remediation are discussed.

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