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Mutat Res. 1978 Aug;51(2):199-236.

Gamma-ray-induced dominant mutations that cause skeletal abnormalities in mice. II. Description of proved mutations.


In a mutation-rate experiment described earlier, 31 dominant skeletal mutations were confirmed by breeding tests. Skeletal abnormalities were detected in the skeletons of some of the sons of irradiated males, and for 31 of these sons the study of skeletons in subsequent generations showed that they transmitted abnormalities. The detailed descriptions of these mutations, together with descriptions of 6 presumed mutations found in a later paper, provide the basis for determining which mutations cause effects that would, if they occurred in humans, cause a serious handicap. Such a determination is necessary before these data can be used to estimate genetic hazard to humans. Furthermore, these descriptions of syndromes caused by individual dominant mutations should be useful to clinicians interested in skeletal defects. The statistical analysis of the frequency of each abnormality in the mutant line versus an approximation of the frequency of the malformation in the absence of new mutations is essential to be sure that a mutation is indeed the cause of each abnormality. These analyses, together with analyses of the correlation of abnormalities caused by individual mutations, clearly demonstrate that dominant mutations exhibit low penetrance for many of their effects. A few of the mutations also cause the death of some heterozygotes. No externally visible effects have been detected in heterozygotes for most of these mutations. Externally visible effects found in some of the heterozygotes for a few of the mutations include hydrocephalus, circling behavior, increased nervous activity, gray coat color, webbing of digits, and small size. Two coat-color mutations were found that caused no detected skeletal abnormalities. The data suggest that a few of the mutations may be reciprocal translocations. In most of the mutant lines tested cytologically, however, there was no indication of chromosomal aberrations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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