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Acta Morphol Neerl Scand. 1983 May;21(2):107-32.

The normal development of the anorectum in the pig.


The development of the anorectum was studied in forty-four embryos and foetuses of pig varying in length from 9 mm total length to 210 mm crownrump length and in three newborn pigs. The presence of some features during critical stages in the development of the cloaca in the pig such as an epithelial mass protruding into the dorsal cloaca near its intestinal orifice and distinct differences in the type of epithelium in different regions of the cloacal system greatly facilitated the study of the developmental process. Thus it could be established that a change in position of the dorsal cloaca and adjacent structures such as the distal part of the gut and the urorectal septum via the dorsal part of the cloacal plate towards the tailgroove is of major importance for the partition of the cloaca into a separate intestinal and urogenital division. A subsequent disintegration of the dorsal part of the cloacal plate results in two separate openings for both the systems at the same time. Disintegration of the ventral part of the cloacal plate leads only to a further widening of the external opening of the urogenital system. In the cloacal system three distinct zones were discerned, a dorsal and ventral cloacal and a cloacal plate region. From the dorsal cloacal epithelium the whole anorectal segment between the intestinal mucosa and the anal epidermis develops. The epithelium of ventral cloacal origin seems to disappear completely . Cloacal plate epithelium forms the epithelial lining of distal parts of the urogenital system. The penile urethra in the male is formed by a ventralward movement of the urogenital opening by the growing perineum and not by fusion of genital folds.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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