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Surgery. 1983 Jul;94(1):41-51.

Hypertonic sodium lactate versus lactated ringer's solution for intravenous fluid therapy in operations on the abdominal aorta.


Fifty-eight patients who were to undergo aortic reconstruction were prospectively randomized into two groups to compare the effects of perioperative fluid replacement with isotonic and hypertonic crystalloid solutions. Blood loss was replaced with packed red blood cells, and additional fluid was given as either Ringer's lactate solution (RL, 130 mEq sodium/L, 274 mOsm/L) or a hypertonic balanced salt solution (HSL, 250 mEq sodium/L, 514 mOsm/L). Fluid was administered to maintain the cardiac filling pressure within 3 torr of the preoperative level and the cardiac output (CO) at or above the preoperative level. The groups were similar with respect to age, preexisting disease, duration of operation, and operative blood loss. During the operation, the RL group required 9.5 +/- 0.8 L of fluid, whereas the HSL group required 4.5 +/- 0.3 L (P less than 0.001). Pulmonary, cardiac, and renal functions were adequately maintained in both groups. There were no significant differences between the groups with regard to CO, urine output, or creatinine clearance during the operation and early postoperative period. Postoperatively, the intrapulmonary shunt was 20 +/- 1% in the RL group and it was 16 +/- 1% in the HSL group (P less than 0.05). The amount of sodium infused and the cumulative sodium balance at the completion of the study period were similar in both groups. Serum sodium and osmolarity were significantly greater in the HSL group (P less than 0.001), reaching a maximum of 151 +/- 1 mEq/L and 305 +/- 2 mOsm/L, respectively. Two patients in the HSL group had a persistent elevation in serum osmolarity (greater than 320 mOsm/L) during operation, for which they received RL for the balance of the resuscitation. There were no complications that could be attributed to the hypertonicity of the solution. HSL is effective for resuscitation of patients with extracellular fluid deficit and is safe provided that the serum sodium and osmolarity are monitored during periods of large volume administration.

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