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N Engl J Med. 1978 Aug 31;299(9):433-6.

Hyperglucagonemia and its suppression. Importance in the metabolic control of diabetes.

Abstract

The role of glucagon in diabetes was studied in four patients with juvenile-type diabetes during continuous insulin infusion and a diet containing 150 g per day of carbohydrate. During insulin alone, plasma glucagon, measured at two-hour intervals, averaged 182 +/- 34 pg per milliliter, glucose 269 +/- 11 mg per deciliter, glucose excretion 52 +/- 8 g per 24 hours, ketone excretion 1.3 +/- 0.3 mmol per 24 hours, and urea nitrogen 12 +/- 2 g per 24 hours (mean +/- S.E.M.). Somatostatin (2 mg per day) lowered glucagon to 60 +/- 13 pg per milliliter, glucose to 111 +/- 17 mg per deciliter, glucose excretion to 1 +/- 0.7 g per 24 hours, ketone excretion to 0.5 +/- 0.2 mmol per 24 hours and urea nitrogen excretion to 8 +/- 2 g per 24 hours. Replacement of glucagon raised glucagon to 272 +/- 30 pg per milliliter, glucose to 202 +/- 20 mg per deciliter, glucose excretion to 14 +/- 7 g per 24 hours, ketone excretion to 0.8 mmol per 24 hours and urea nitrogen excretion to 11 +/- 2 g per 24 hours. In a subsequent study, similar improvement occurred on a diet of 30 g of carbohydrate daily, when absorption of dietary glucose was negligible. Hyperglucagonemia has an important role in diabetes; its correction reduces diabetic abnormalities to or toward normal.

PMID:
683275
DOI:
10.1056/NEJM197808312990901
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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