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Respir Physiol. 1982 Feb;47(2):177-91.

Respiratory mechanics of Pekin ducks under four conditions: pressure breathing, anesthesia, paralysis or breathing CO2-enriched gas.


Impedance magnitude (Z) of the lower respiratory system was studied in Pekin ducks, using forced oscillations of a small volume at the airways opening in the range 1.6-16 Hz. The experiments were performed on 5 awake ducks enclosed in a body plethysmograph and spontaneously breathing ambient air at a transrespiratory pressure (Prs, the pressure difference between the lung and the body surface) which was varied in steps from -10 cm H2O (compression) to +10 cm H2O (distension). In 3 anesthetized birds, the effects of CO2 breathing and muscular paralysis were also studied. Analysis of end-expiratory Z data yielded estimates of respiratory resistance (R), inertance (I) and compliance (C). During positive or negative pressure breathing in conscious ducks, minute volume (V) and end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) remained unchanged from normal (Prs = zero) while tidal volume (VT) and ventilatory period (Ttot) decreased. The respiratory system in late expiration can be modelled well with a simple series R-I-C mechanical model at Prs values of zero, +10 and -10 cm H2O. The value of Z increased at all frequencies studied during compression of the respiratory system (Prs = -10 cm H2O) and did not change much from normal (Prs = zero) during distension (Prs = +10 cm H2O). Both resistance and inertance increased during compression. During distension contradictory changes in resistance and inertance suggest that complex changes in flow profile and/or in flow pathways occurred with positive pressure breathing. Anesthesia or paralysis did not noticeably change the oscillatory resistance or inertance, but increased oscillatory compliance. CO2-breathing did not affect the respiratory impedance in late expiration, but reduced its flow dependence along the ventilatory cycle.

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