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Antibody-mediated enhancement of disease in feline infectious peritonitis: comparisons with dengue hemorrhagic fever.

Abstract

Non-immune kittens passively immunized with feline serum containing high-titered antibodies reactive with feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) developed a more rapid disease after FIPV challenge than did kittens pretreated with FIPV antibody-negative serum. Antibody-sensitized, FIPV challenged--kittens developed earlier clinical signs (including pyrexia, icterus, and thrombocytopenia) and died more rapidly than did non-sensitized, FIPV-challenged kittens. Mean survival time in sensitized kittens was significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced compared to non-sensitized kittens (mean +/- SEM, 10.0 +/- 0.6 days vs. 28.8 +/- 8.3 days, respectively). Lesions induced included fibrinous peritonitis, disseminated pyogranulomatous inflammation and necrotizing phlebitis and periphlebitis. FIPV antigen, immunoglobulin G, complement (C3) and fibrinogen were demonstrated in lesions by immunofluorescence microscopy. The pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in persons bears striking resemblance to that of FIP in experimental kittens. In both FIP and DHF, non-neutralizing antibody may promote acute disease by enhancement of virus infection in mononuclear phagocytes or by formation of immune complexes, activation of complement and secondary vascular disturbances.

PMID:
6754243
DOI:
10.1016/0147-9571(81)90003-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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