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J Biol Chem. 1984 Jul 25;259(14):9064-75.

Rat liver dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferases and their contribution to glycerolipid synthesis.

Abstract

Differential and isopycnic centrifugation of rat liver homogenates showed that, besides its established localization in peroxisomes and endoplasmic reticulum, dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferase is also present in mitochondria. The three activities differed in a number of properties (pH optimum, palmitoyl-CoA and dihydroxyacetone-phosphate dependence, and sensitivity toward N-ethylmaleimide) and are therefore likely associated with three distinct proteins. Glycerol 3-phosphate (5 mM) did not inhibit peroxisomal dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferase but inhibited the extraperoxisomal activities virtually completely. Peroxisomal dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferase was located at the inner aspect of the peroxisomal membrane, but the enzyme was not latent. Purified microsomes, from which intact peroxisomes had been removed, were still contaminated with peroxisomal membranes as deduced from the presence of two dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferase activities: a glycerol 3-phosphate-resistant activity with properties similar to those of peroxisomal dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferase and a glycerol 3-phosphate-sensitive "true" microsomal dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferase. We propose that, assayed in the presence of 5mM glycerol 3-phosphate, dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferase can be used as a marker enzyme for peroxisomal membranes. Such a marker enzyme has not hitherto been available. The differential effect of 5 mM glycerol 3-phosphate on peroxisomal and extraperoxisomal dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferases enabled us to determine the relative contribution of these activities to overall dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acylation in whole liver homogenates. At near-physiological pH and at near-physiological concentrations of unbound palmitoyl-CoA and of dihydroxyacetone-phosphate plus glycerol 3-phosphate, peroxisomes contributed 50-75%. The remaining percentage was mostly accounted for by the microsomal enzyme. At near-physiological concentrations of glycerol 3-phosphate plus dihydroxyacetone-phosphate, glycerolphosphate acyltransferase contributed 93% and dihydroxyacetone-phosphate acyltransferase 7% to overall glycerolipid synthesis in homogenates. This suggests that the dihydroxyacetone-phosphate pathway is of minor quantitative importance in overall hepatic glycerolipid synthesis but that its main function lies in the synthesis of ether lipids, which have acyldihydroxyacetone-phosphate as obligatory precursor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

PMID:
6746639
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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