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Kidney Int. 1984 Feb;25(2):422-9.

Role of plasma vasopressin in the impairment of water excretion in nephrotic syndrome.


To verify whether or not an increased secretion of ADH may cause the water retention commonly observed in nephrotic syndrome, 16 nephrotic patients and 13 normal control subjects were studied in basal conditions and following a water load or an iso-osmotic blood volume expansion by 20% albumin infusion. In the basal condition there were no differences in plasma ADH, urine output, urinary osmolality (UOsm), and plasma renin activity between nephrotic patients and control subjects; POsm, PNa+, UNaV, and blood volume (BV) instead, were significantly lower in nephrotic patients than in control subjects. Following the water load control subjects reached a minimal UOsm of 82 +/- 12 mOsm/kg at 60 min and excreted completely the ingested water in 150 min; nephrotic patients reached a minimal UOsm of 160 +/- 111 mOsm/kg at 120 min, and the water was eliminated completely in 240 min. Plasma ADH decreased significantly in the first hour following water load only in control subjects. A significant direct correlation was observed between plasma ADH and POsm in control subjects (ADH = -85 + 0.30 POsm, P less than 0.001) but not in nephrotic patients. Plasma ADH was inversely correlated with BV in nephrotic patients (ADH = 15.47 -0.17 BV, P less than 0.001) but not in normal control subjects. In nephrotic patients with reduced BV the expansion of BV with 20% albumin was effective in reducing the plasma levels of ADH and promoting a water diuresis. Our results demonstrate a sustained volume mediated secretion of ADH in the nephrotic syndrome, which is responsible for the impairment in water excretion.

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