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Fed Proc. 1984 May 15;43(8):2332-7.

Acetylation pharmacogenetics: experimental models for human toxicity.


Hereditary acetylation polymorphisms well-suited to experimental pharmacogenetic investigation are now known in three laboratory animal species (rabbit, mouse, and hamster). These animal models provide new evidence for the profound influence of this trait on the metabolic fate of arylamines and hydrazines, and on their pharmacological and toxicological profiles. The rabbit polymorphism most closely resembles that in humans. For the rabbit model, studies have shown that 1) monoacetylhydrazine is a polymorphic substrate for liver N-acetyltransferase in rapid and slow acetylators. This observation, in conjunction with human epidemiological data of others, opposes the commonly held view that rapid acetylators are predisposed to isoniazid (INH)-induced hepatotoxicity. 2) Slow acetylators are much more sensitive than rapid acetylators to the lethal central nervous system toxicity of INH. 3) In hepatocytes in short-term culture and exposed to arylamines and hydrazines, DNA damage is produced by hydralazine in slow acetylator hepatocytes but not in rapid acetylator hepatocytes, whereas hepatocytes from rapid acetylators are more sensitive to toxicity and DNA damage from 2-aminofluorene and benzidine. These investigations in animal models of the acetylation polymorphism provide new insights into human toxicity resulting from environmental arylamines and hydrazines.

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